Generic battery technology comparison

Page under development. Surprised? These numbers are gathered from multiple sources under different conditions. So comparisons are difficult at best and any actual comparison should use proven data for a particular model of battery. Batteries perform differently due to different processes used by different manufacturers and different models from the same manufacturer will perform differently depending on what they are optimized for. The actual application will dramatically affect a battery's performance and the choice of battery.

Technology Density Cycle
life to
80% DOD
maturity cost Range*
unique features
energy power current future environmental
Wh/kg Wh/l W/kg W/l $/kWh $/kWhkm
Flooded lead acid         600 20 mature 100 100 low with recycling 96 modest performance lead
Advanced lead acid 35 71 412 955 500 5 production 150 100? low with recycling 160 high performance lead
Nickel Cadmium50 150     2000? 100 mature 300 300 high cadmium 200  
Nickel Metal Hydride 80 200 220 600 600+   production 1000 200 low 320  
Nickel Zinc 60 100 500   600   laboratory?     low 250  
Lithium Ion 100 300     1200   laboratory     low    
Lithium Polymer (3M) 155 220 315 445 600+ 1000 protoype     low   pack in body panels saving space!
Lithium Polymer (Electrofuel) 183 470         production     low   pack in body panels saving space!
Lithium Polymer Potential 400 500 1000   600+   laboratory     low   pack in body panels saving space!
Sodium Nickel Chloride90 150 100 200   400 prototype   300      
Zinc Air 200 200 100 30     prototype 300 100 low   Recharged by Zn electrode replacement
Flywheel             laboratory     low   Mechanical!
Ultra Capacitor 12 5   10**8 10**8   laboratory     low    
Vanadium Redox             laboratory         electrical or mechanical recharge by replacing electrolyte
* - Range values are HIGHLY dependent on aerodynamics, battery mass, vehicle mass, drive train efficiency, weather, tires and other factors. Consequently, a highly optimized state of the art vehicle can easily get 2 to 3 times the range of a vehicle not optimized for range for a given battery technology. The range numbers are included to give a relative feel for the battery technology without having to derive it from energy density. The range assumes an efficient vehicle with good aerodynamics in the 1000 kg witout batteries sedan range driven on dry pavement using some energy conserving driving habbits.
Conversion factors: 1km = 0.62 miles, 1 mile = 1.6 km
Data are optimized, independent values. For example, when testing for peak power ( power density ) energy is removed from the battery so fast that it may only have 10-50% of it's capacity. When testing for capacity ( energy density ), the power levels are lower to get a higher capacity.
Data extracted from hear say, manufacturers, and EE Times.
Some of the data is from small cells like AA bateries. Data for EV batteries is used where available.
Data is selected to reflect higher density battery implementations without going into astronomical cost premiums.
Data reflects the electric vehicle market. Ie. NiMh batteries are in production for portable electronics but are in a prototype stage for electric vehicle size batteries.
Depending on the technology, state of development, production volumes and size of battery cell these numbers can easily vary by +-50%. Cost in some cases may be off by a factor of 10 or more as labaratory or prototype batteries move into high volume production.